Spatio-Temporal Methods in Environmental Epidemiology
Chapter 12 - ROADBLOCKS ON THE WAY TO CAUSALITY: EXPOSURE PATHWAYS, AGGREGATION AND OTHER SOURCES OF BIAS
This chapter contains a discussion of the differences between causality and association. It also covers specific issues that
may be encountered in this area when investigating the effects of environmental hazards on health. From this chapter, the reader
will have gained an understanding of the following topics:
Issues with causality in observational studies.
The Bradford–Hill criteria which are a group of minimal conditions necessary to
provide adequate evidence of a causal relationship.
Ecological bias which may occur when inferences about the nature of individuals
are made using aggregated data.
The role of exposure variability in determining the extent of ecological bias.
Approaches to acknowledging ecological bias in ecological studies.
Concentration and exposure response functions.
Models for estimating personal exposures including micro-environments.