Environmental Hazards over Space

This chapter contains the basic theory for spatial processes and a number of approaches to modelling point-referenced

spatial data. From this chapter, the reader will have gained an understanding of the following topics:

spatial data. From this chapter, the reader will have gained an understanding of the following topics:

- Visualisation techniques needed for both exploring and analysing spatial data and
communicating its features

through the use of maps. - Exploring the underlying structure of spatial data and methods for characterising dependence over space.
- Second-order theory for spatial processes including the covariance. The variogram for measuring spatial associations.
- Stationarity and isotropy.
- Methods for spatial prediction, using both classical methods (kriging) as well as modern methods (Bayesian kriging).
- Non-stationarity fields.

Code for mapping with plotgooglemap

Maximum Daily Temperature at California sites

California Temperature sites MetaData

New York Sites MetaData (Site locations in lambert Projection Coordinates)