Spatio-Temporal Methods in Environmental Epidemiology
Chapter 9 - From Points to Fields: Modelling Environmental Hazards over Space
This chapter contains the basic theory for spatial processes and a number of approaches to modelling point-referenced spatial
data. From this chapter, the reader will have gained an understanding of the following topics:
Visualisation techniques needed for both exploring and analysing spatial data and
communicating its features through the use of maps.
Exploring the underlying structure of spatial data and methods for characterising
dependence over space.
Second-order theory for spatial processes including the covariance. The variogram for
measuring spatial associations.
Stationarity and isotropy.
Methods for spatial prediction, using both classical methods (kriging) as well as
modern methods (Bayesian kriging).